• 雾里看花的美式中国观察

    by  • October 8, 2010 • 世界与中国 • 37 Comments

    中国朝野现在均重视外部评价,最能调动中国人情绪的应当就是来自美国的评价。闻好评则喜,认为这是本国国际地位提高的表现;闻差评则怒,认为这是“海外反华势力”在妖魔化中国。

    8月下旬,美国《新闻周刊》发布一个最受尊重国家领袖排行榜,中国的温总理被赞扬为“最体恤民情的领袖”,位居榜首。这条消息立刻登载在中国各大官方网站上。但9月25日《纽约时报》那篇由温相在出席联大期间的表现而激发出的文章――“新中国的三副面孔(Three Faces of New China),中国方面认为此文有污名化中国之嫌,于是当它不存在。

    《纽约时报》这篇文章的大意是,在国际媒体的聚光灯下,温相的言行给了美国人一个机会,让它们有机会看到中国三副完全不同的面孔。第一副面孔是一个欺负邻国的中国,它切断日本获得稀土的渠道,除非东京在钓鱼岛领土争议上彻底认输;第二副面孔是一个会敷衍的中国,温家宝竭尽全力转移奥巴马就人民币价值问题施加的压力。第三副面孔是对国际事务的精于算计。比如在对北韩和伊朗制裁的问题上选择为平衡其国家利益而采取不一致的立场。还有为获得苏丹、伊朗的石油,经过非洲好望角的安全运输等所实施的一系列谋略。

    看到中国有三副不同面孔,这表明美国记者已经学会多向度地观察中国。但该文认为“这种从挑衅到半挑衅到外交手段,在20年前中国领导人想都不敢想”,则是对中共从毛泽东处继承下来的外交韬略(尤其是对美谋略)缺乏了解。

    毛泽东一辈子最大的愿望是当世界革命的领袖。这一愿望曾经部分在东南亚及非洲地区实施过。当年越南、马来西亚、新加坡、柬埔寨、缅甸等国的共产党均视北京城的金太阳为其伟大领袖,并长期在北京接受培训。后来邓小平执政后奉行“韬光养晦”,只是说在实力不够时要收起爪子与牙齿,等待时机成熟,并非放弃了从毛那里秉承下来的世界领袖梦想。这次对日外交,只不过是中共亚洲战略的一次实力演练而已。

    至于对美国的态度,综观毛泽东一生,可说视其政治需要发生了好几次大的变化。在其思想进入稳定期的中年之后,这种变化与其解释成思想变化,还不如说是机会主义的韬略。凭借这种机会主义韬略,毛主导的对美外交曾获得两次巨大的成功。一次是延安时期对美国记者团(中外记者西北参观团)与美国军事代表团的非常成功的利用。为了达到目的,甚至让《新华日报》在1943年7月4日发布社论“民主颂――献给美国的独立纪念日”,这一韬略获得的丰厚回报是让美国改变了对中共的看法。第二次是上世纪七十年代中美建交,中国不仅成功地实施了联美抗苏,还因此回到了世界舞台。为了这些巨大好处,毛甚至为此不惜得罪众多社会主义国家的小兄弟。美国人至今都未好好计算过自己为这两次被利用所付出的机会成本。

    目前活跃于美国媒体业的记者,其职业生涯大都开始于毛去世之后,他们看到了中国外交策略上的灵活多变,却没看出这是中国政府继续奉行毛对美国的机会主义韬略所致。比如毛在政治上意识形态上始终视美为敌,今天中国政府仍然要求美国尊重中国的核心利益,所开出的菜单上的第一道大菜就是要求美国尊重中国现有的政治制度。在舆论上当年是粉碎美国的“和平演变”的阴谋,如今则演变成反对美国策划的颜色革命等等。

    温相这次在联大时期的表现,只不过是对毛的机会主义外交谋略的新发挥而已。只是这次活动时间短,外交目标多,所以有机会让美国人开了眼。由此可见,即使是观察中国不乏高手的美国,其不少观察也只是雾里看花罢了。至于中国那种对评价择其好者闻之的态度,更是“以愚民始,以愚己终”的自欺欺人之举。

    (原载何清涟VOA博客,2010年10月8日, http://voachineseblog.com/heqinglian/2010/10/watchchina/

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    37 Responses to 雾里看花的美式中国观察

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    2. 燕山客
      October 8, 2010 at 23:11

      中国人迷信外国对中国的评价,何老师这篇文章可以帮助国内人多了解一下这方面的信息。我个人很愿意多读这方面的文章。她过去评价外国专家对中国的评价离谱的文章我也看过,我与我的同事都赞成她的观点。

    3. ChangLing
      October 14, 2010 at 16:29

      这两天在看了中国评价刘晓波获诺贝尔奖对中国政治民主将起巨大推动作用的种种猜测之后,才算是明白了何女士为什么要说美国对中国的观察是雾里看花。其实比雾里看花还要模糊,还要不得要领。

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