• 魔瓶中的“爱国主义”还会继续听主人吆喝吗?

    by  • October 27, 2010 • 世界与中国 • 71 Comments

    从10月16日开始一连三天,中国各地接连举行反日示威游行。由于中国那部《游行示威法》事实上已变成《禁止游行示威法》,人们因此很容易猜测这些游行均由官方操控。然而到了20日以后,中国一些城市的大专院校依据教育部最新通知相继封校,不让学生上街参加反日游行。对官方这一放而又收的举动,很多人不太理解,只感到圣意难测。

    中国官方当然要将这些游行说成是民众“自发”的。但事实是:从上世纪90年代开始,中国政府制造了以狭隘民族主义为底色的爱国主义这个“魔鬼“,关在自己严格掌控的政治魔瓶里以备用。1999年中国驻南斯拉夫大使馆被炸事件,以及2001年中美撞机事件发生之后,本人由于工作性质所系,亲历了中国当局如何利用爱国主义这种国家游戏,争取外交利益。

    1999年5月8日中国驻南斯拉夫大使馆被炸以后,中国各大学接到中共各级宣传部的指示:由学生会与校共青团委出面组织学生游行(不少学校还为学生提供游行期间的食物及饮料),标语口号统一制作,每个系要派出领队,以便控制局面,防止发生超出政府意愿之外的事情。同时各地媒体也奉命赶往现场“采访”,报纸在当晚都必须以通栏标题在头版做为重要新闻发出。宣传部还下发了一组参考性质的新闻标题并指示:各媒体做标题时可以在不偏离给定的标题题意范围之内发挥创造性,以免各报新闻标题大同小异,给外界造成政府在背后操纵的印象。游行过程中,不少武警与公安穿上便衣混于游行队伍当中,遇有学生呼喊政府不喜欢的口号,立即制止。于是整场游行“稳定有序地进行”,“向美国政府展示了中国人民的愤怒与力量”(当时的媒体用语)。

    这是江泽民统治时期利用民众情绪争取外交利益的第一次尝试。由于美国政府担心中国民意汹涌,导致中美关系恶化,作了一些让步。中国政府尝到了甜头。此后在2001年中美撞机事件发生后再度祭起这一法宝,但效果不如第一次理想,不少网友借互联网发文质疑撞机事件真相,包括中国飞行员王伟是否死亡都在质疑之列。

    2005年日本要求成为联合国常任理事国。为了挫败日本争常的努力,中国政府亲手执导了一场声势浩大、以民族主义为主诉的“国家游戏”,几管齐下,制造了各种压力,迫使日本首相小泉纯一郎于4月22日在雅加达举行的亚非高峰会议中,为日本在二战期间对亚洲造成的苦难道歉,以此安抚中国和南韩的反日怒火。一旦目的达到,中国政府立即宣布结束这场“国家游戏”。其时,中国当局已经看到一些苗头:被压抑已久的中国民众在游行的狂欢中宣泄郁闷,随时有可能将这场国家游戏的主题变换到其他方向。于是对民众发出强硬警告,明令不得进一步参与任何反日示威。中国前外交官员亦被派往中国各大学告诫学生,要“以合法和有序方式表达他们的感情”。

    中国政府这种处理外交事务的手段是师从晚清故智。晚清官僚在处理“华洋关系”时悟出“官怕洋人,洋人怕老百姓,老百姓怕官”,在外交失败时,总是认为“民气可用”,挟民自重,借民众仇外力量来达到自己的外交目的,1900年义和团事件就是满清政府“挟民制洋”的“经典之作”。
    今年中国政府暗中操控反日游行时,已预先考虑到在一线大城市的反日游行中可能会出现少数人借机“闹事”,有意将反日游行安排到在当局眼中政治觉醒度不太高的二三线城市。但事与愿违,在陕西宝鸡的反日游行队伍中,除了抗议钓鱼岛事件、呼吁抵制日货之外,还出现了“抗议高房价”、“推进多党合作”、“缩小贫富差距”、“实行新闻自由”,“英九哥,大陆人民欢迎你!”等标语(日本FNN新闻频道10月24日,http://fnn.fujitv.co.jp/news/headlines/articles/CONN00186705.html)。在反日游行中居然出现了这样的“反政府口号”,迫使中国政府在全国紧急叫停反日游行。

    在控制之下放出阿拉丁魔瓶中的“魔鬼”,曾在外交上为中国当局加分。但今年的情况表明,“魔鬼”不再象以往那样听从主人吆喝。诚如网友所言,一个连自己房子与耕地都保不住的国度,国民哪有什么热情去保护一块早就不属于自己的国土?

    (原载何清涟VOA博客,2010年10月27日,http://voachineseblog.com/heqinglian/2010/10/patriotism/

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    71 Responses to 魔瓶中的“爱国主义”还会继续听主人吆喝吗?

    1. 津门散人
      October 27, 2010 at 17:16

      博主将亲身经历写出来,让我等知道这爱国主义游行如何策划的具体过程,多谢了!这应该就是亲历历史,中共政府的官员与喉舌是不会写出来的。

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    3. 申王平
      October 27, 2010 at 22:50

      中国那部《游行示威法》事实上已变成《禁止游行示威法》, 我也感觉是这样,qq里开个会,就会被监控,真的不舒服。提心吊胆的。

    4. buchier
      November 8, 2010 at 01:45

      有一種說法:參與並執行公選憲法就是愛國,反之則是賣國。如此,博主該怎樣詮釋自己的觀點呢?

    5. 游方
      November 10, 2010 at 23:34

      “官怕洋,洋怕民,民怕官"这句经典。

      不过今非昔,官已不怕洋,「耍洋」而已。

      不知今日之洋能否再学聪明些,搞政治,还是党在行。

    6. May 24, 2011 at 14:20

      民國六十年代,中華民國在國際外交上遭到接連挫敗時
      當時的國民黨也曾採用這種民族主義無限上綱的作法
      目的和現今的共產黨一樣,維持自己統治局面的安定
      但到了蔣經國執政後期,他開放黨禁及報禁
      讓國民黨轉危為安
      共產黨有沒有這種決心呢??
      希望是有
      但看看現實面,共產黨的前景越來越不樂觀
      黨和國一起”仆街”,只是時間早晚的問題了

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