• 中国政治文化中的“衙内”现象

    by  • October 27, 2010 • 中国观察 • 0 Comments

    10月16日晚,河北大学校园内发生车祸。肇事者李启铭撞伤人之后没有停车,而是继续前行接女友。在其回程时,车子被学生和保安截住,肇事者那句“有本领你们告去,我爸是李刚!”让官二代的骄横再次成为网络舆论谴责的焦点。

    李刚的官其实不算大,保定市公安局北市区分局主管刑侦的副局长可能只是个副处级,但其子的骄横却折射了中国这个身份型社会特有的一道文化密码:“衙内”现象。从古到今,中国就是个讲究家世传承的身份型社会,自唐代开始才有科举制为底层社会开了一条极为狭窄的向上流动通道,绝大多数民众只能是“农之子恒为农,工之子恒为工,商之子恒为商”,子承父业地生活下去。

    这种身份型社会有一个副产品,即官员子弟可以凭借父兄的地位在社会上享有特权。这种特权为有才者善使善用,这时候被尊称为“公子”,比较有名的有战国四公子、明末四公子、晚清四公子――也许“公子”这一产品最开始问世时就与“四”字结缘,以后历代都追慕前贤,想方设法凑成“四公子”之数。官员子弟如果成为仰仗父辈之势做坏事的纨绔子,则被贬称为“衙内”。《水浒传》中的高衙内成为这类人的文学形象。

    中共建政60年以来,对官员子弟的称呼有变化,“文革”时期统称为“革干子弟”,被目为天然的红色接班人;“文革”结束后的80、90年代,则按出身高下分别有称呼,出身于中央领导家庭的谓之“太子”,出身于官阶高的干部家庭被呼之为“高干子弟”。民间对其中的作恶者贬称为“衙内”。“官二代”这一称呼应该就是近六、七年以来与富二代同时出现的新称呼。

    但不管称呼怎么改变,有一点本质却相同,那就是这些官员子弟无论是投身商场官场,都必须以父兄辈权势为起步之阶。一个不幸的事实是,每朝每代出的“佳公子”为数不多,衙内之辈却层出不穷。

    以“公子”这类官宦子弟的上品言之,战国出了孟尝君、信陵君、平原君、春申君等四公子,卓绝一时。千余年之后至晚明才生出文采风流的四公子,即晚明文坛享有盛名的陈贞慧、侯方域、方以智、冒辟疆。时人记载,此四人出则忠义,入则孝悌;爱宾客、广交游,风流倜傥,冠绝一时。清末四公子谭嗣同, 陈三立,吴保初及丁惠康等四人,除了其父辈均具有巡抚、提督等省级干部身份之外,实在谈不上有何共同点,其中谭嗣同在戊戌维新中殉难,陈三立有诗名,更有子陈寅恪成为国学大师,后两位只能算是续貂。毫无疑问,这些公子们无论是交游还是成名,都有平民子弟不及之优势。但中国社会崇拜特权,对这些善用特权者倒从来持褒奖揄扬之态。比如今天中国政坛之“太子党”现象,算是承袭当年“公子”之风余绪。

    以“衙内”身份作恶者,中共建政60年以来不断发生。“文革”晚期,中国各地都频发干部子弟胡作非为之事,毛泽东只好在1975年的一次高干会议上专门讲述了京剧《辕门斩子》的故事情节,提醒和告诫高干们加强对子女的教育。这次讲话后来传达至各单位,《内参》对此也有报道。80年代中期,全国上下对高干子弟在社会上的胡作非为多有不满。两起案件送到总书记胡耀邦的案前。一是青海省办公厅主任儿子杨小民杀人案。杨小民在其父包庇下,杀人多年后仍逍遥法外。胡耀邦批示“杀人者偿命“,杨小民终遭枪决。另一起案件即为上海市高干子弟胡晓阳(上海市委第二书记,人大常委员主任胡立教之子)、陈小蒙、陈冰郎(二陈系上海市委常委、宣传部长陈其五之子,收入《毛泽东选集》第四卷的“敦促杜聿明等投降书”是陈其五之作)等人的流氓团伙案,市委第一书记陈国栋不敢作主,向胡耀邦请示,胡批示“罪大恶极,不杀不足以平民愤”。据此批示,胡晓阳、陈小蒙和葛志文在1986年3月以强奸和现在无法理解的“诱奸”罪被执行死刑。

    “太子党”与“衙内”现象,都是崇尚特权的身份型社会的产物。对于中国人而言,20世纪算是将整个社会翻了个底朝天,但这一传统不仅保持下来,而且以更极端的形式“发扬光大”,导致官二代之恶劣现象罄竹难书。究其缘由,既有官员家教错失之因素,社会政治环境更难辞其咎。

    (原载于何清涟VOA博客,2010年10月27日,http://voachineseblog.com/heqinglian/2010/10/richpoorchina/

    Print Friendly, PDF & Email

    About

    0 Responses to 中国政治文化中的“衙内”现象

    1. 过客
      October 27, 2010 at 16:44

      博主文字典雅,学养不凡,别具眼光。

      官二代之所以如今越来越猖獗、嚣张和无耻,正是因为权利在今天的中国享有至高无上的地位,这种地位得到僵硬的政治体制的保护,也得到垄断经济利益的滋养,而后者还是毛时代不具备的。

      正是:

      孙志刚,躲猫猫
      草泥马,烧宜黄
      谁道吏不必可畏
      我爸是李钢

      高衙内,袁克定
      朱国华,陈晓阳
      试看天下谁能敌
      我爸是李钢

      • He Qinglian
        November 12, 2010 at 21:47

        谢谢。欢迎常来博客光顾。

    2. Pingback: Tweets that mention 中国政治文化中的“衙内”现象 -- Topsy.com

    3. 支持何老师
      October 27, 2010 at 21:49

      何老师能为大陆人民道出不敢道也不能道的社会真相,令人敬佩。支持您!

    4. 申王平
      October 27, 2010 at 22:52

      哈哈,让我们想起来高衙内!

    5. 申王平
      October 27, 2010 at 22:55

      我还不理解这里面怎么开博客呢?

    6. Tomson
      October 27, 2010 at 23:33

      虽然 我们年轻人会逐渐步入社会主流,影响国家政策,但国家的政治改革能不能不等我们的成长,毕竟还有那么多年,还有多少个陈晓风,多少个李刚,你们那些个大人的良心呢?

    7. sunguiyue
      November 5, 2010 at 09:02

      李刚舅舅的亲家到底是九人中的哪位啊

    8. 无名氏
      November 14, 2010 at 14:36

      校友保重。

    9. November 17, 2010 at 00:19

      共产党嚣张啊。蓝来李刚家的北京不小啊

    10. taiwanese
      December 8, 2010 at 09:29

      何老師妳好 很喜歡老師的文章,老師說出了一葛中國知識份子的良心,雖然我是台灣人 可是普世價值˙是文明人類的共同語言, 特權與衙內橫行正是社會不正常的表現也是法制不落實的結果,可惜的是台灣也很多這樣的衙內現象 可以看這兩天台灣的連勝文槍擊案就可以知道了. 其實只要依法論法 確實去執行 那有這麼多問題呢 ,謝謝老師 請多寫出美好的文章來啟迪我們的思想

    11. heqinglian
      June 9, 2011 at 21:05

      OK, very good.

    12. June 26, 2011 at 02:41

      thanksssss

    13. July 1, 2011 at 22:38

      Bonjour, Dear Friend! I’m Sabrina, I live in Netherlands and I am a Writer. You wrote an excellent issue, I have added it to my rss reader. Part of your information is interesting for my forum. I want re-post some of the info to my site. Are you ok with that? I will backlink to your blog.

    14. July 6, 2011 at 22:11

      Helpful Weblog! I seemed to be just debating that there are lots screwy outcomes at the issue at this point you purely changed my own perception. Thank you quite much a perfect write-up

    15. July 9, 2011 at 08:00

      Extraordinary job right here. I in truth loved that which you needed to state.

    16. July 10, 2011 at 07:09

      I’m not able to look at this website correctly upon firefox I feel there is a problem

    17. July 13, 2011 at 04:25

      I feel like you could probably teach a class on how to make a great blog.

    18. July 13, 2011 at 14:17

      I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site. Reading this info So i’m happy to convey that I have a very just right uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I so much definitely will make sure to don’t fail to remember this website and give it a look on a constant.

    19. August 3, 2011 at 18:45

      There’s nothing like good reading material on a rainy day. That’s really the only reason I was online and happened upon your article. I agree with you on many levels.

    20. August 8, 2011 at 02:24

      Excellent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely great. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are stating and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it sensible. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a great website.

    21. August 20, 2011 at 08:01

      Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such magnificent information being shared freely out there.

    22. September 2, 2011 at 08:59

      Sweet blog, greetings from Europe!

    23. September 10, 2011 at 01:32

      you obtained a instead excellent website, Glad I seen it via yahoo.

    24. September 10, 2011 at 02:52

      you obtained a rather outstanding website, Glad I observed it by way of yahoo.

    25. September 17, 2011 at 19:34

      I enjoyed reading your interesting yet very informative insights. I am looking forward to reading more of your most recent articles and blogs.

    26. October 3, 2011 at 10:50

      I am thankful that I found this site, precisely the right info that I was searching for!

    27. October 11, 2011 at 13:47

      Nice post. I be taught something tougher on different blogs everyday. It will at all times be stimulating to read content material from different writers and observe a little bit something from their store. I’d desire to make use of some with the content material on my weblog whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

    28. January 19, 2012 at 17:05

      Unquestionably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people think about worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

    29. January 21, 2012 at 16:23

      This is very cool! I haven’t seen anything like this in a long time. Very high quality writing and I’ll be back.

    30. February 7, 2012 at 22:33

      I am glad to be a visitant of this staring blog, regards for this rare info!

    31. February 13, 2012 at 14:54

      Thank you an unbelievable put up, may read your particular others topics. thanks for your thinking for this, I experienced a trifle strike by this short article. Many thanks again! You wanna make an excellent moment. Displays the beauty through excellent info here. I feel that in case more people considered it like that, they’d have got a better moment in time receive the grasp ofing the difficulty.

    32. February 22, 2012 at 03:51

      I’m really experiencing and enjoying the design and also design of your respective website. This is a a breeze on the face so that it is considerably more pleasurable will come here and pay a visit to often. Have you use out there a creator to make your concept? Great function!

    33. Pingback: scooter carrier review

    34. March 19, 2012 at 20:36

      I think a visualized display can be improved then simply a simple text, if information are defined in pictures one can effortlessly understand these.

    35. May 29, 2012 at 21:52

      Thank you, this really is the worst thing I’ve read

    36. Pingback: 中国政治文化中的“衙内”现象 | 清涟居

    37. August 2, 2012 at 00:01

      Keeps me personally returning. Saved for future visits

    38. August 14, 2012 at 01:49

      Hey! awesome weblog! I happen to be a daily visitor to your internet site (somewhat a lot more like addict ) of this website. Just wanted to say I appreciate your blogs and am looking forward for extra!

    39. August 20, 2012 at 18:43

      I have not discovered what I desired

    40. September 26, 2012 at 05:16

      We appreciate you this remarkable internet site! I’m hooked and also beginning to make modifications

    41. November 6, 2012 at 18:33

      Excellent post , I am going to spend more time researching this topic

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *