• 海外华人投资中国运势考

    by  • November 30, 2010 • 世界与中国 • 30 Comments

    11月26日,易网通上市公司首席执行官(CEO)、澳籍华人吴植辉因“涉嫌挪用公司财产”被拘。

    吴植辉的新闻之所以吸引眼球,主要是由于以下原因:一、吴植辉具有澳籍华人身份。对于正与中国在资源方面密切合作的澳大利亚来说,这一案件究竟会在多大程度上影响两国关系?由于此前力拓胡士泰案件并未影响中澳经济合作升温,人们越来越怀疑这种某国华人身份到底能起有多大保护作用。二、吴的“外资”身份如何界定。在英国上市的易网通是吴植辉在泽西岛注册的一家离岸公司,按2006年8月颁布的《关于外国投资者并购境内企业的规定》,这种公司被中国视为“假外资”。吴植辉就是借易网通投资有限公司、广州通旅商贸和广州鑫之烨三家公司,不断增持广之旅股份直至目前的52.39%,成为其实际控制人。附带说一下,广之旅是一家国有企业,今年8月,广之旅原董事长郑烘因涉嫌严重违法违纪被“双规”,其罪名就是违规操作了易网通对广之旅的股权收购,导致国有资产流失。

    中国对在华外商态度,确实存在种族及国别歧视。这种族歧视其实指的主要是对华人的歧视,而华人所在国籍也起相当重要的作用,比如美籍华人会优于欧洲及澳大利亚等国,当然比东南亚国家的华人牌子更硬一点。“X籍华人”身份在中国政府眼中是个软牌子,与中国政府视海外华人为本国子民的政治传统有关。曾有一位美籍华裔人权活动家随欧盟人权代表团访问中国,被安全部特工试图绑架。在绑架过程中,安全部特工对这位人权活动家说了一句很牛皮的话:“只要你是华人,不管你拥有哪国国籍,会不会讲中文,中国政府都有资格管你。”外国政府也早就发现本国华人在中国相对容易受伤害这一事实,布什政府曾就此专门提醒过有批评中国政府言行的美籍华人到大陆去要注意安全,最好不要去。根据上述事实,再加上目前中国对外资态度从整体上趋强,我认为吴植辉的案件将与胡士泰结局类似,中国政府只要找到说得过去的判刑理由,让澳大利亚政府有个台阶下即可。

    至于吴祖辉有无侵吞国有资产的问题,目前虽然未披露详细情况,但从中国国有资产流失的惯例及吴几年间股权迅速增加的情况来看,其中肯定有许多灰色操作。美国中国商会与欧盟中国商会今年都发表调查报告,对中国的投资环境颇多抱怨之辞,尤其是对中国政策法规及政府行为缺乏透明度表示不满。事实上,在中国做生意,离开灰色操作难以成事,这是在华外商与中国官员之间心照不宣的秘密。但同是外商违规,更容易被中国政府惩罚的往往是港台商人与海外华人。《凤凰周刊》2005年第14期一篇报道透露,近年来港商在大陆吃官司、被关押的人数上万。台湾投资中国受害者协会会长高为邦认为,在大陆陷牢狱之灾的台商至少高达两千。

    中国目前号称发展中国家头号引资大国。但有一件事情却很少提及,即中国引进的外资当中,有三分之一左右是“假外资”,即中国人或中国公司将资金转至海外,在国外注册公司后,再以外资 的名义回流中国。根据中国商务部的说法,中国人变身为假外资的主要目的是“政策性寻租”。实行低税的香港、英属维京群岛、开曼岛、萨摩亚等地分别成为这些假外资的注册地。外商在华直接投资当中到底有多少假外资?世界银行1992年的估计是该比重当时已达到 25%;至2006年中国的假外资比重已超逾33%。

    在外资尚未大规模涌进中国时,中国政府对这种假外资采取睁只眼闭只眼的态度。但后来中国政府不想让这种假外资再占政策性便宜。于2006年8月北京推出《关于外国投资者并购境内企业的规定》,该法规引入了“实际控制”原则,规定中国境内公司到境外设立的企业,以及境内人士改变国籍的,原则上不再按外资对待。

    2010 年的中国社科院《全球安全与政治》报告显示,中国正成为全球最大的移民输出国,但从21世纪开始,这些以新富阶层为主体的移民们无意迁往他国居住,只是希望更换公民身份并继续留在中国生活。他们移民的目的,只是希望外国国籍能够为他们提供一种庇护,但胡士泰、吴植辉等案件却让人产生疑问:在中国这种灰色投资环境与不透明的法制状态下,有外国国籍身份掩护的华人就真的安全了吗?

    (原载何清涟VOA博客,2010年11月30日,http://voachineseblog.com/heqinglian/2010/11/investinchina/

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    30 Responses to 海外华人投资中国运势考

    1. Pingback: Tweets that mention 海外华人投资中国运势考 -- Topsy.com

    2. 云中君
      November 30, 2010 at 11:39

      何老师这篇文章很有参考价值。我周围许多人移民海外,除了为子女前途考虑之外,主要就是要这件外籍公民的保护伞。胡士泰案件发生后,大家虽然觉得这案子以非法窃取国家机密罪抓捕,以受贿罪结案有点太说不过去,但总觉得胡士泰做了坏事,如果清白就会找不到借口。不过想想,在中国那种灰色的商业环境中,有几人能够保证自己完全清白呢?

    3. 123
      November 30, 2010 at 18:38

      何女士:
      你好,我想大多数国人都看过你的著作,可惜国人总是后知后觉,就像你在此文中说的那样,权贵阶层不停的移民国外,除却给自己心理一种安全感还能有什么呢?但是不可否认这种保护伞仍然是有效的。从资产的流失人才的流失到权贵的移民,无不显现出当前政府的无能和无为,国人渐渐醒觉的民主意识仍然在遭受着封建专制官僚压迫和奴性思维的制衡,面对当前的中国,国人只能摇手作罢,望洋兴叹,我不是民族主义者更不是爱国贼,我只是在想中华儿女想要毅力在世界之巅,如何打破这种奴性思维和狭义的爱国意识,显然国内泯灭良知的经济学家报喜不报忧而复辟的犬儒文化又让中国回到了过去,我只是想知道当今有多少是以中华儿女为出发点的民主斗士存在
      123敬上
      望回复次邮箱:chocolateu@ymail.com

      • He Qinglian
        December 1, 2010 at 10:14

        贵留言说,“我只是想知道当今有多少是以中华儿女为出发点的民主斗士存在”,这是天问,因为我也不知道。就算是声称自己是这类人的,也还有个言行统一的问题。
        另,有这么个“YMAIL”存在吗?是不是“GMAIL”的误写?

    4. 香港人
      November 30, 2010 at 20:38

      一万多港人坐牢,这数据我不敢相信。去查了一下,是一位叫做玛雅的作者写的“北京门事件”,登在《凤凰周刊》2005年第14期总第183期上。真不敢相信啊。过去只听说港人在大陆投资赚钱养二奶。看来真是孤陋寡闻。
      不过听说霍英东在广东投资受气的故事。

    5. Liyang
      December 1, 2010 at 21:22

      何老师,我现在正在办理移民,确实有求安全的心态。但生意又放不下,因为刚做开没几年。以前不知道有您讲的这个《关于外国投资者并购境内企业的规定》,不知我的身份变了后,能否算作外资?比如我入的是加拿大籍,我的公司能不能算作加拿大资本?如果可能,麻烦指点一二,那规定,我读起来实在觉得解释起来太模糊。

    6. paul
      January 11, 2011 at 08:00

      其實有些海外華人也要問問自己,兩頭吃是負責任的行為嗎?中共就是抓住這一點打擊你們,如果不回中國賺錢,不和中共攪和在一起,會出這種事嗎?想要自己在中國做生意有保障,最根本的做法是推動中國的憲政和民主,老是這么短視不行的。敢和魔鬼做生意,就該做好隨時翻船的心理準備。當年臺灣的“江南案”起了推動臺灣政治解嚴最重要的作用,海外的臺灣人居功至偉。所以海外華人不是沒有能力自救,是不為也。

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