• 中印比较是本厚重的书

    by  • June 28, 2011 • 世界与中国 • 92 Comments

    自从黄亚生等人前几年开拓了“中印比较”这一研究领域后,人们突然发现,两国昔日都曾有文明古国的辉煌,如今却同属发展中国家,人口之多难分轩轾,目前又都被列为“金砖四国”成员。于是这一领域的研究曾大大地红火了一阵,急急出炉的专著与文章不少。不过至今为止,在这一领域的深层掘进有限。

    对于中国来说,最不喜欢被拿来比较的是两国的制度之“异”,即印度承袭了英式制度,中国则紧紧抱住“中国特色的社会主义”。偏巧实行了民主制的印度也是个腐败高发的国家,于是中国最喜欢用来用来说事的就是印度的民主政治未能扼制腐败,并就此断言:中国的专制未必就输于民主,所以中国有足够理由保持现有政治制度。

    这种结论其实很不严肃。因为:

    第一,当今世界实行民主制度的国家,无论从腐败的性质还是范围来看,都远比中国轻微得多。即使是外铄型民主国家,如东亚地区的新加坡,以及与中国同一文化血脉的台湾,也比中国好得多。即使被视为腐败典型的陈水扁,其腐败数额能够很轻易地被中国大陆一县处级官员超越。因此,不考察印度腐败文化的“路径依赖”,只用印度的腐败来论证民主制度的反腐功能不比专制强,除了自欺之外,欺人都未必有什么效果。

    第二,经济上,中国由国家的代表现政权垄断一切资源,所有领域都发生腐败,即使是私营经济部门,也因必须从政府部门手里批租土地、获得经营许可及税收优惠等,必须向多如牛毛的政府部门(官员)行贿。印度在尼赫鲁时期号称“社会主义国家”,也实行计划经济,但从未消灭私营经济。以土地制度为例,中国的土地制度在世上堪称独一无二,农村土地集体所有制为政府掠夺农民耕地开辟了一条制度通道,导致1亿2000万农民失去土地,其间发生的腐败案之多可用“贪官90%都与土地有关”这句纪检官员的名言佐证。中国的教育、医疗部门与司法都成为腐败重灾区。从现有资料看,至少印度在教育医疗土地管理部门发生的腐败案件远不如中国多。中国人至少应该研究一下自家的腐败灾情为何远比人家严重,才算对得起自己吧?

    第三,新闻管制上,中国远比印度严苛。以最近的网络反腐事件为例,印度人创立了反腐网站,至今在印度仍安然无恙地生存,而中国效法印度的10多家民间反腐网站却纷纷被当局关停。这就需要思考一个问题:两国的新闻体制的异同以及媒体在反腐败上所起作用的比较分析。

    与中国相比,印度的新闻媒体当然属于自由媒体。《印度新闻概览》一书指出:新闻界不由国家控制和审查,对新闻的控制权主要掌握在个人或组织手里,印度中央政府或邦政府不出版任何属于政府的日报,只有个别邦政府出版月报或周报。印度报纸虽时有对严重的社会问题、经济问题如经济危机、通货膨胀、失业等社会痼疾的批评,以及对官吏违法、失职的批评。为什么印度拥有新闻自由,媒体却未能很好地起到阻遏腐败的作用,这一点应该研究。而不是简单地做出“新闻自由既然不能阻止腐败的出现,因此控制媒体也是必要的”。

    曾任印度财政部长、外交部长和国防部长的贾斯旺星(Jaswant Singh)曾写过一篇文章“印度的腐败诅咒”,谈到印度腐败蔓延的几个原因,一、牢牢控制着印度大部分政治的“王朝制”在腐败滋生过程中起着关键作用。二、印度处理人民投诉的机制已经变得异常呆滞,印度人民正抛弃标志着印度早年奋斗历史的团结精神。三、印度已经忘记了如何容纳异议,非主流观点完全被忽视了。结果,政府将反对的声音视为“帮倒忙”、是一种必须镇压的叛变行为,“政府对待反对派的意见采取了傲慢和拒绝的态度。反对派对政府的态度也是一样的。双方都认为,对反对态度表示尊重和容纳被视认为是示弱”。他的结论是,印度现在恰好是“完全没有代议制民主应有的精神”,“没有全体公民的基本团结精神,代议制民主就无法正常运转”,如果我们尊重这位印度内部人的观察与经验,就应该承认中国流行的所谓“印度的民主制是产生腐败的温床”这一说法非常荒谬,因为这位前印度高官所谈的事实是:印度承受的不是民主化之苦,而是民主化严重不足之苦。

    中国现在不拿自己与文化历史地缘及社会发展水平完全不同的欧美相比,愿意与同处亚洲的印度相比,算是将对自身实力的认知从云端里拉回到地面上了。但印度与中国一样,是本厚厚的大书,这种比较要花工夫。仅仅出于政治需要、想当然地按如下三段式得出推论:假设:民主制比专制优越之处在于能扼制腐败;印度是民主制,但它也有严重的腐败;结论:因此,民主制与专制相比,并无优越性。

    ——这种粗糙的比较,除了说明中国人是阿Q的子孙之外,什么收获也没有。

    (原载美国之音何清涟博客,2011年6月28日,http://voachineseblog.com/heqinglian/2011/06/china-india-comparison-reviews/

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    92 Responses to 中印比较是本厚重的书

    1. 推磨
      June 28, 2011 at 23:47

      阿Q已經從中學的語文課本中刪除了,現實中阿Q精神被推舉,這說明愚民從自己的文化中下手是最為有效的。

    2. June 29, 2011 at 01:53

      世界上的发达国家无一不是民主国家,但,民主国家不一定全是发达国家。可是,独裁专制国家无一不是垃圾国家,垃圾国家一定是独裁专制。

    3. June 29, 2011 at 08:30

      何女士寫一輩子文章,有沒有考慮過這麽一個問題:“中國”到底是不是一個國家???

      • heqinglian
        June 29, 2011 at 09:05

        中国这个词用来做为国名,确实是中华民国以后的事情。但在唐代开始,文献中出现中土、中国这类词,指的是这块土地。我知道不少人因为不喜欢这个朝代,也摹仿了当年中共的语言使用方法,用“伪政权”、中共国等各种词称呼现在的P.R.China,但我个人不喜欢这种用法。因为文章的力量不体现在用语的狠,而在于深刻,讲清楚问题。你说呢?

    4. paul
      June 29, 2011 at 08:59

      何老师谈得很清楚,那些研究中印对比的人,大多带有某种邪恶的目的,轻的是赶时髦好捞钱,重的就是为极权专制辩护。搞明白这一点,就知道他们制造的基本是垃圾,甚至都不需要时间的检验。
      中国的腐败是世界上正常一点的国家都不可想象的,用西方现代的语言根本无法准确形容,就像中国人的骗术一样,登峰造极。西方学者应该翻翻罗马帝国的历史,那个时代词也许更准确些。

    5. heqinglian
      June 29, 2011 at 09:06

      对VOA、BBC、自由亚洲等电台性质不了解的人士,可以读《自由欧洲电台》非暴力革命的输出:从东欧到中东http://yyyyiiii.blogspot.com/2011/06/blog-post_4184.html
      “我们只是想试着让世界相信,实现变革的唯一正确途径是非暴力的,且有策略的抗争。”每一场起义都在本土成长,但非暴力的原则可以被传授,还有那些躲避催泪弹和网络审查的技巧。

      原文:Exporting Nonviolent Revolution, From Eastern Europe To The Middle East

    6. 春天来了
      June 29, 2011 at 09:06

      【——这种粗糙的比较,除了说明中国人是阿Q的子孙之外,什么收获也没有。】

      您这句话我不能同意的。应该是::

      ——这种粗糙的比较,除了说明中共匪腐狗官是阿Q的子孙之外,什么收获也没有。

    7. 计生暴政亡国灭种
      June 29, 2011 at 10:00

      中共计划生育暴政和全世界最低工资最高物价最高房价最差福利最大贫富差距最无自由民主的共产专制暴政导致2050年中国人口将剧降到7亿左右而且到时中国还必将是全世界养老负担最重的国家。2050年印度人口将达到约17亿,2050年美国人口将达到约6亿。2050年后的世界是美国和印度主导的世界,中国将变成一个无足轻重的三流国家。如果全世界独此一家的中共计划生育暴政和和全世界最低工资最高物价最高房价最差福利最大贫富差距最无自由民主的共产专制暴政不停止,2100年以后中国人将快速走向亡国灭种的悲惨境地。

      强烈呼吁马英九总统率领台湾军民尽速反攻大陆解救同胞。强烈呼吁同样被中共特供匪帮残酷剥削压榨的千千万万基层共产党员共青团员退出中国共产党共青团并且加入中国人民反共抗暴的全民起义。强烈呼吁国内外各民运组织团结起来尽快在中国边境组建中国过渡民主革命政府和中国过渡民主革命议会并且在中国边境和内地尽速组建中国民主革命军。目前最重要的就是组建斩首团对以胡匪紧逃为首的中共特供匪帮匪首们进行斩首。起来,不愿做奴隶的中国人。

      • June 30, 2011 at 07:36

        支持。

      • 抬桿
        July 6, 2011 at 15:41

        中共抓了王丹,魏京生,只關幾年,就趕他們去美國,夠暴政的。但你開口閉口卻要砍別人的頭(而這個人在華盛頓受到紅地毯迎接).到底誰殘暴點?

    8. 过客
      June 29, 2011 at 18:30

      读完了又几点想法
      1.中印腐败严重程度无可比较的实证数据
      2.新加坡不是民主国家,更像是制度森严,管理高效的李氏家族企业
      3.信息管制在选举和非选举政权下都有,只是管制和影响的方式和手段不同而已
      4.选举国家的政治献金和说客在某种程度上可以看作是合法的腐败和行贿的职业化系统化,选举制国家元首涉嫌贪污不只是阿扁一家
      5.三权分立和选举制并不是治理腐败的的药方
      6.中国人不是阿Q的后代
      7.喷子,轮子以及各怀鬼胎的民运人士和中国合理治理以及普通百姓生活的改善没有一毛钱关系
      8.美国人说了:Be nice to America , or we’ll bring democracy to your country

    9. June 30, 2011 at 07:34

      早就该澄清一下了。我觉得印度的腐败最多像我们80年代早期的那种腐败。并且印度的腐败是可控的。是可以逐渐改善的。

    10. 无寸丁
      June 30, 2011 at 19:25

      症结可能在于中国没有宗教精神。

    11. jackandjill
      July 5, 2011 at 07:17

      拜读了你的文章,很有道理.

    12. 25岁湖南湘西人
      July 8, 2011 at 15:08

      “五十步笑百步”本来就是贬义词,但是我生活在中国大陆天天感觉耳边都充斥着这些简单的贬义成语笑话里面。后来就都懒得辩驳他们了。
      不过中印比较学在中国确实有市场,有市场所以就有学者提出来。要是比较中美、中日,反而没什么好说,大多一句话“情况不同”。
      何女士,这个博客是你本人么?我弄到一本《雾锁中国》,感到很震撼。这里谢谢你了。

    13. Delhi belly
      July 19, 2011 at 13:01

      不要过于感情用事的评论印度 更不要随意作比较 你们没在这里呆过 乱说有鸟用阿?

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    23. CN
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      ” 偏巧实行了民主制的印度也是个腐败高发的国家 ”,我看不是“偏巧”吧,请数数这世界上“民主制”国家有多少,腐败高发又有多少?

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